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Trenchless Methods

Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
Is used for installing infrastructure such as telecommunications and power cable conduits, water lines, sewer lines, gas lines, oil lines, product pipelines, and environmental remediation casings in a shallow arc along a prescribed bore path by using a surface-launched drilling rig, with minimal impact on the surrounding area. Directional boring is used when trenching or excavating is not practical. It is suitable for a variety of soil conditions and jobs including road, landscape and river crossings. Pipes can be made of materials such as PVC,polyethylene, polypropylene, Ductile iron, and steel if the pipes can be pulled through the drilled hole. Directional boring is not practical if there are voids in the rock or incomplete layers of rock. The best material is solid rock or sedimentary material. Soils with cobble stone are not recommended. There are different types of drilling tools used in the pilot-hole process, and they depend on the geological material.

Auger Boring
The trenchless installation of a pipe or casing that is hydraulically pushed horizontally, from inside a shaft, into the ground while an auger bit and flighting rotate inside the pipe or casing removing the spoil. This method can be used independently or in conjunction with other trenchless methods. Typically this method is used in ground conditions that range from soft to medium/hard formations. This method cannot be used in hard formations or in unconsolidated formations with cobbles larger than the product pipe.

Guided Boring Machine (GBM)
Used in conjunction with Auger Boring and Pipe Ramming when ‘line’ accuracy is imperative to the success of the crossing. Using a GBM allows for accuracy within 25mm (1”) over 120m (394 ft.). A GBM installs a 102 mm (4”) pilot tube with a LED target in the lead tube. This LED is monitored on a screen to ensure line and grade is maintained. Once the pilot tube completes the crossing a reamer and specified casing is attached to the pilot tube. The casing is then installed using either an Auger Boring Machine or pipe ramming method. The reamer and pipe maintains line and grade by following the path of the pilot tube.

Down the Hole Hammer (DTH)
This trenchless installation of a pipe or casing is achieved by attaching a pneumatic hammer to the inside leading edge of the casing. The front of the DTH is designed with a 2 piece ring bit face that breaks down solid rock into small pebbles or dust. The spoil then makes its way through the hammer and into the casing where it is removed via airway augers driven by the boring machine.

Pipe Jacking
A method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways. Kamloops Augering and Boring Ltd. has pipe jacking machines capable of jacking product lines between 1.20 metres to 3.00 metres in diameter.

Pipe Ramming
Commonly refers to the trenchless installation of a pipe or casing that is forced into the ground horizontally using large pneumatic pipe ramming hammers. A hammers size/force that is required is determined by the ground conditions, casing size and/or required installation length. Once a section(s) of pipe is hammered into the ground an Auger Boring Machine (ABM) is set up and the spoil is removed from the inside of the casing. The hammer is remobilized and the pipe ramming continues. This hammer/ABM process continue until the crossing is complete and the casing has been ‘cleaned’.

Pressurized Tunnel Bore Machines (PTBMs)
A method of tunnel construction in which allows the pressure at the face of the TBM to remain balanced with the use of slurry or air pressure. This allows unstable ground conditions (ground water, unconsolidated formations) to be tunnelled.

Tunnel Lubrication Systems
Bentonite and polymer mud products are injected into the annulus between the product line and the geological formation to reduce friction forces.

Shotcrete Equipment
Shotcrete is concrete conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface, as a construction technique. Shotcrete undergoes placement and compaction at the same time due to the force with which it is projected from the nozzle. It can be impacted onto any type or shape of surface, including vertical or overhead areas. The Tunneling Company uses shotcrete during the construction of our entry and exit shafts.

Tunnel Grouting Systems
Grouting systems are used to fill voids between the geological formation and installed product line or between product lines, one inside of the other. There are several reasons for grouting which include but are not limited to adding structural integrity and heat dissipation.

Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs)
TBMs are used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through hard rock, sand, and almost anything in between. Tunnel diameters can range from a metre and exceed 15 metres.